Elk Bugling - Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences - Purdue University
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Elk Bugling

The stillness and silence of the evening air is broken by a low-pitched bellow that intensifies to a loud, high-pitched trimodal note that continues until the bull elk runs out of breath. With a quick gasp of air, he immediately follows this with a series of barks or grunts.  He repeats the bugling again and again in an attempt to seduce female or cow elk to join the bulls’ harem.  The bugling is countered by that  of nearby rival bulls trying to out sound their competitors in an attempt to woo the cows. These serenades continue throughout the day, reaching a frenzy in the evening. 

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